DEATH OF A SALESMAN: an introDuCtion by Donesh Olyaie Production dramaturg arthur miller’s Death of a Salesman has become the american tragedy for the twentieth century. Written in 1949, this play is not the saga of noble kings from prominent families but instead the story of Willy Loman, the patriarch of a middle-class family from Brooklyn. Free download or read online Death of a Salesman pdf (ePUB) book. The first edition of the novel was published in 1949, and was written by Arthur Miller. The book was published in multiple languages including English, consists of 144 pages and is available in Hardcover format.
As a flute melody plays, WillyLoman returns to his home in Brooklyn one night, exhausted froma failed sales trip. His wife, Linda, tries to persuade him to ask hisboss, Howard Wagner, to let him work in New York so that he won’thave to travel. Willy says that he will talk to Howard the nextday. Willy complains that Biff, his older son who has come backhome to visit, has yet to make something of himself. Linda scoldsWilly for being so critical, and Willy goes to the kitchen for asnack.
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As Willy talks to himself in the kitchen, Biff and hisyounger brother, Happy, who is also visiting, reminisce about theiradolescence and discuss their father’s babbling, which often includescriticism of Biff’s failure to live up to Willy’s expectations.As Biff and Happy, dissatisfied with their lives, fantasize aboutbuying a ranch out West, Willy becomes immersed in a daydream. Hepraises his sons, now younger, who are washing his car. The youngBiff, a high school football star, and the young Happy appear. Theyinteract affectionately with their father, who has just returnedfrom a business trip. Willy confides in Biff and Happy that he isgoing to open his own business one day, bigger than that owned byhis neighbor, Charley. Charley’s son, Bernard, enters looking forBiff, who must study for math class in order to avoid failing. Willypoints out to his sons that although Bernard is smart, he is not“well liked,” which will hurt him in the long run.
A younger Linda enters, and the boys leave to do somechores. Willy boasts of a phenomenally successful sales trip, butLinda coaxes him into revealing that his trip was actually onlymeagerly successful. Willy complains that he soon won’t be ableto make all of the payments on their appliances and car. He complainsthat people don’t like him and that he’s not good at his job. AsLinda consoles him, he hears the laughter of his mistress. He approachesThe Woman, who is still laughing, and engages in another reminiscent daydream.Willy and The Woman flirt, and she thanks him for giving her stockings.
The Woman disappears, and Willy fades back into his priordaydream, in the kitchen. Linda, now mending stockings, reassures him.He scolds her mending and orders her to throw the stockings out.Bernard bursts in, again looking for Biff. Linda reminds Willy thatBiff has to return a football that he stole, and she adds that Biff istoo rough with the neighborhood girls. Willy hears The Woman laughand explodes at Bernard and Linda. Both leave, and though the daydreamends, Willy continues to mutter to himself. The older Happy comesdownstairs and tries to quiet Willy. Agitated, Willy shouts hisregret about not going to Alaska with his brother, Ben, who eventuallyfound a diamond mine in Africa and became rich. Charley, havingheard the commotion, enters. Happy goes off to bed, and Willy andCharley begin to play cards. Charley offers Willy a job, but Willy,insulted, refuses it. As they argue, Willy imagines that Ben enters.Willy accidentally calls Charley Ben. Ben inspects Willy’s houseand tells him that he has to catch a train soon to look at propertiesin Alaska. As Willy talks to Ben about the prospect of going toAlaska, Charley, seeing no one there, gets confused and questionsWilly. Willy yells at Charley, who leaves. The younger Linda entersand Ben meets her. Willy asks Ben impatiently about his life. Benrecounts his travels and talks about their father. As Ben is aboutto leave, Willy daydreams further, and Charley and Bernard rushin to tell him that Biff and Happy are stealing lumber. Although Beneventually leaves, Willy continues to talk to him.
Back in the present, the older Linda enters to find Willyoutside. Biff and Happy come downstairs and discuss Willy’s conditionwith their mother. Linda scolds Biff for judging Willy harshly.Biff tells her that he knows Willy is a fake, but he refuses toelaborate. Linda mentions that Willy has tried to commit suicide.Happy grows angry and rebukes Biff for his failure in the businessworld. Willy enters and yells at Biff. Happy intervenes and eventuallyproposes that he and Biff go into the sporting goods business together.Willy immediately brightens and gives Biff a host of tips aboutasking for a loan from one of Biff’s old employers, Bill Oliver.After more arguing and reconciliation, everyone finally goes tobed.
Act II opens with Willy enjoying the breakfastthat Linda has made for him. Willy ponders the bright-seeming futurebefore getting angry again about his expensive appliances. Linda informsWilly that Biff and Happy are taking him out to dinner that night.Excited, Willy announces that he is going to make Howard Wagnergive him a New York job. The phone rings, and Linda chats with Biff,reminding him to be nice to his father at the restaurant that night.
As the lights fade on Linda, they come up on Howard playing witha wire recorder in his office. Willy tries to broach the subjectof working in New York, but Howard interrupts him and makes him listento his kids and wife on the wire recorder. When Willy finally getsa word in, Howard rejects his plea. Willy launches into a lengthyrecalling of how a legendary salesman named Dave Singleman inspiredhim to go into sales. Howard leaves and Willy gets angry. Howardsoon re-enters and tells Willy to take some time off. Howard leavesand Ben enters, inviting Willy to join him in Alaska. The youngerLinda enters and reminds Willy of his sons and job. The young Biffenters, and Willy praises Biff’s prospects and the fact that heis well liked.
Ben leaves and Bernard rushes in, eagerly awaiting Biff’sbig football game. Willy speaks optimistically to Biff about thegame. Charley enters and teases Willy about the game. As Willy chasesCharley off, the lights rise on a different part of the stage. Willycontinues yelling from offstage, and Jenny, Charley’s secretary,asks a grown-up Bernard to quiet him down. Willy entersand prattles on about a “very big deal” that Biff is working on.Daunted by Bernard’s success (he mentions to Willy that he is goingto Washington to fight a case), Willy asks Bernard why Biff turnedout to be such a failure. Bernard asks Willy what happened in Bostonthat made Biff decide not to go to summer school. Willy defensivelytells Bernard not to blame him.
Charley enters and sees Bernard off. When Willy asks formore money than Charley usually loans him, Charley again offersWilly a job. Memeo instant backup download deutsche. Willy again refuses and eventually tells Charley thathe was fired. Charley scolds Willy for always needing to be likedand angrily gives him the money. Calling Charley his only friend,Willy exits on the verge of tears.
At Frank’s Chop House, Happy helps Stanley, a waiter,prepare a table. They ogle and chat up a girl, Miss Forsythe, whoenters the restaurant. Biff enters, and Happy introduces him toMiss Forsythe, continuing to flirt with her. Miss Forsythe, a callgirl, leaves to telephone another call girl (at Happy’s request),and Biff spills out that he waited six hours for Bill Oliver andOliver didn’t even recognize him. Upset at his father’s unrelentingmisconception that he, Biff, was a salesman for Oliver, Biff plansto relieve Willy of his illusions. Willy enters, and Biff triesgently, at first, to tell him what happened at Oliver’s office.Willy blurts out that he was fired. Stunned, Biff again tries tolet Willy down easily. Happy cuts in with remarks suggesting Biff’ssuccess, and Willy eagerly awaits the good news.
Biff finally explodes at Willy for being unwilling tolisten. The young Bernard runs in shouting for Linda, and Biff,Happy, and Willy start to argue. As Biff explains what happened,their conversation recedes into the background. The young Bernardtells Linda that Biff failed math. The restaurant conversation comesback into focus and Willy criticizes Biff for failing math. Willythen hears the voice of the hotel operator in Boston and shoutsthat he is not in his room. Biff scrambles to quiet Willy and claimsthat Oliver is talking to his partner about giving Biff the money.Willy’s renewed interest and probing questions irk Biff more, andhe screams at Willy. Willy hears The Woman laugh and he shouts backat Biff, hitting him and staggering. Miss Forsythe enters with anothercall girl, Letta. Biff helps Willy to the washroom and, findingHappy flirting with the girls, argues with him about Willy. Biffstorms out, and Happy follows with the girls.
Willy and The Woman enter, dressing themselves and flirting. Thedoor knocks and Willy hurries The Woman into the bathroom. Willyanswers the door; the young Biff enters and tells Willy that he failedmath. Willy tries to usher him out of the room, but Biff imitateshis math teacher’s lisp, which elicits laughter from Willy and TheWoman. Willy tries to cover up his indiscretion, but Biff refuses tobelieve his stories and storms out, dejected, calling Willy a “phonylittle fake.” Back in the restaurant, Stanley helps Willy up. Willyasks him where he can find a seed store. Stanley gives him directionsto one, and Willy hurries off.
The light comes up on the Loman kitchen, where Happy enters lookingfor Willy. He moves into the living room and sees Linda. Biff comesinside and Linda scolds the boys and slaps away the flowers in Happy’shand. She yells at them for abandoning Willy. Happy attempts toappease her, but Biff goes in search of Willy. He finds Willy plantingseeds in the garden with a flashlight. Willy is consulting Ben abouta $20,000 proposition. Biff approaches himto say goodbye and tries to bring him inside. Willy moves into thehouse, followed by Biff, and becomes angry again about Biff’s failure. Happytries to calm Biff, but Biff and Willy erupt in fury at each other.Biff starts to sob, which touches Willy. Everyone goes to bed exceptWilly, who renews his conversation with Ben, elated at how greatBiff will be with $20,000 of insurance money.Linda soon calls out for Willy but gets no response. Biff and Happylisten as well. They hear Willy’s car speed away.
In the requiem, Linda and Happy stand in shock after Willy’s poorlyattended funeral. Biff states that Willy had the wrong dreams. Charleydefends Willy as a victim of his profession. Ready to leave, Biffinvites Happy to go back out West with him. Happy declares thathe will stick it out in New York to validate Willy’s death. Lindaasks Willy for forgiveness for being unable to cry. She begins tosob, repeating “We’re free. . . .” All exit, and the flute melodyis heard as the curtain falls.